Illustrator - cutting tools and pathfinder
a few ways to cut and chop content in Adobe Illustrator
The Pathfinder panel gives you the ability to add, subtract, and otherwise interact with each other to build more complex shapes. There are also specialized cutting tools that allow you to separate a shape into multiple elements. Here are some resources on how to use those tools.
How to Cut a Shape by Graphic Design Employment - good breakdown of different ways to cut a shape into smaller pieces. Nice description of how the tools differ so you can be sure to get the effect you want.
Combine objects by Adobe Help - intro to Pathfinder which allows both cutting and combining shapes with each other.
Cut, divide, and trim objects by Adobe Help - includes descriptions of cutting tools like Scissors and the Knife, as well as more information about the Pathfinder.
How to quickly build shapes in Illustrator from Creative Bloq - a breakdown of how to use the tools to make practical shapes from a site that isn't Adobe Help.